Available at: Emergency doctor working in the community. PMID: 10691074 [free full text]. ​Dog bites by breeds not perceived as "dangerous" (non-legislated breeds) are less likely to be reported. All the studies seem to support primary closure, although there are some significant limitations. “Infection was defined as the presence of erythema and tenderness beyond that expected 24 h after the injury with or without purulent discharge, cellulitis or lymphangitis”. Therefore, which meta-analysis you believe will depend a lot on what you think about this one paper. Annals of emergency medicine. Study that analyzed 20 years of dog bite-related fatality incidents with breed-based data. in … The study recommends a multidisciplinary, behavior-based approach to further study and address the relevant risk factors associated with DBRFs. 2011. Study published in 2017 that analyzed the characterization and severity of dog bites in medical studies and literature. The DNA results were then compared to the visual identification of the dog's breed by shelter staff. As a result, out of a consecutive sample of 227, they only excluded 18 (and another 25 refused to participate). The Cochrane review is negative. There were no infections. West J Emerg Med, Dec 2010. "Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pitbull-type dogs was unreliable.". Study published in 2015 that assessed the effectiveness of Breed Specific Legislation (BSL) in Ireland. None of the trials could be blinded. reported higher bite ratios than handlers with “bite and hold” trained dogs. ), Unfortunately, now that I live in New Zealand, I need a different question answered. The study was conducted by researchers at Northeastern University (Boston, MA), Tufts University - Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine (North Grafton, MA), and other subject matter experts. 23(3):535-40. This is an older meta-analysis. Medeiros I, Saconato H. Antibiotic prophylaxis for mammalian bites. The have special bacteria that you have to memorize for board exams (but otherwise are probably meaningless). This is a double blind randomized controlled trial. Dog bite-related fatalities (DBRFs) are the result of a number of different factors and breed-specific legislation was ineffective for reducing DBRFs. With all that bacteria, we have to give antibiotics, right? PMID: 8135429. Infection occurred in 2 of 44 patients (4%) in the control group and 0 of 46 patients treated with antibiotics. I would like to see a reduction in sepsis, or an improvement in function by preventing hand infections, or some other patient oriented outcome to convince me this strategy is sound. The average cost per claim increased by 5.3%. Background Dog bite studies are typically based on hospital records and may be biased towards bites requiring significant medical treatment. Cosmetic appearance at 4 weeks using the Vancouver Scar Scale by a blinded surgeon was significantly better in the sutured group. The study was conducted by researchers at Arizona State University. Using appearance to determine breed was once again determined to be highly unreliable with accuracy ranging between 10.4% and 67.7%. Infection in the control group was 16% (somewhat high as compared to the other studies here). Data includes statistics for dog bite incidents in 22 urban Canadian municipalities. Why/how we did this story. Ann Emerg Med. Overview. There were 8 infections (5.5%; 95% CI 1.8% to 9.2%), 4 of the upper extremity and 4 of the head. The findings of this study are consistent with and extend from previous publications [5,7,11–13,16,21,22,29]. The study was conducted by researchers at the Wageningen UR Livestock Research institute (Netherlands) and published by The Veterinary Journal. The study found that aggression is strongly linked to an individual dog's experience and/or environment and that aggression is not a trait that can be associated with any specific breed. This is a prospective observational cohort of 145 mammalian bites (88 dog, 45 cat and 12 human) all treated with primary suture closure at the discretion of the treating physician. In the study's conclusion, breed was not an identified factor affecting bite force. Prophylactic antibiotics were not given. “One special advantage of the skeptical attitude of mind is that a man is never vexed to find that after all he has been in the wrong.” - William Osler. They excluded complex or complicated wounds and patients with immunosuppression. Behavior such as teasing the dog comes to mind as a top reason: other studies show that in most dog bite … These cdc dog bite statistics will show you which breeds of pups were involved in the human attacks that were fatal, from 1979 to 1998. The study used a comprehensive dataset from hospital emergency room records and included records on 2,622 serious dog bite-related injuries from 2002 through 2015 (covering incidents before and after BSL was enacted). Dogs labeled as a pitbull-type breed had an average DNA concentration of 43.5% from pitbull-type ancestry (38.5% average in shelter 1 and 48.4% average in shelter 2) and the majority (62% or 152 of 244) of pitbull-type dogs in the study had less than a 50% DNA concentration from pitbull-type ancestry. The mere fact that the child was taken to Mayo Clinic's Level I Pediatric Trauma Center in Rochester, Minnesota, demonstrated the severity of his injury, according to Denise B. Klinkner, M.D., M.Ed., Mayo Clinic pediatric surgeon and pediatric trauma medical director, noting the majority of dog bites are managed in the outpatient setting. Data includes dog bite-related risk information. Study published in 2017 that analyzed 140 dog bite incidents over a period of several years. Case Reports & Presentations There is one more paper published since this review: Quinn JV, McDermott D, Rossi J, Stein J, Kramer N. Randomized controlled trial of prophylactic antibiotics for dog bites with refined cost model. At Mayo Clinic Hospital, Saint Marys Campus, where the child was treated, 21 patients have been admitted for dog bites over the last five years. Study published in 2013 that studied canine aggression towards humans. In many of the medical studies analyzed, there were: "​clear-cut factual errors, misinterpretations, omissions, emotionally loaded language, and exaggerations based on misunderstood or inaccurate statistics. Elenbass (1984) looked only at cat bites, and concluded that antibiotics were helpful. The big determinant of infection was whether patients presented before or after 8 hours, but suturing didn’t change things in either group. Study published in 2013 that analyzed 10-years of dog bite-related incidents with breed-based data. This data is clearly imperfect. Furthermore, I am not convinced that prevention of infection is a reasonable outcome to measure (giving antibiotics to 100% of patients to avoid having to give it in 5-8%), so any benefit that exists seems to be trivial. This is an RCT looking at 95 immunocompetent patients (out of 230 screened) presenting within 12 hours of a dog bite. Dog bite statistics :: Each day about 1,000 U.S. citizens require emergency care treatment for serious dog bite injuries. (Callaham 1980). Resistance is incredibly difficult to quantify in a single study, but it is clearly important, so we need to consider it in our calculations even if it is hard to assign a specific number to the risk. 1988. Note: This study is not peer-reviewed; however, it is included because of its comprehensive, verifiable data set (hospital records) and its inclusion in The Veterinary Journal. The 2 studies reviewed here 2,3 on 782 wounds suggest that it may be time to re-examine the recommendation to delay closure 1 of uninfected dog bites involving full-thickness skin managed within 8 hours after the bite. Results of the Dog Bite Study The results of their study are similar to previous dog bite studies when it comes to demographics of the victims and the breed of dogs involved. I think this study uses a very funny definition of wound infection, which would explain why it is such an outlier. Data includes comprehensive aggression testing results from 415 legislated dogs (such as pitbull-type breeds) and 70 Golden Retrievers (control group). Annually, about 14,025 citizens are hospitalized due to dog bite injuries. Data includes statistics for breed identification errors between visual breed identification and DNA signatures. However, more than ½ of these patients were repaired in the OR, so these are not necessarily your standard ED dog bites. 98% of the pitbull-type dogs in the study were identified to be mixed breed dogs by DNA testing. Therefore, these 2 studies can’t explain the discrepancy between the two meta-analyses. With very large, complicated wounds, I think it is reasonable to involve a surgeon (who will inevitably close them, but perhaps after a much better clean out in the OR. 2014; 45(1):237-240. This study is an RCT that included 168 dog bites and randomized them to either suturing or not. If this difference is real, we would have to treat 100 patients with antibiotics in order to prevent 4 patients from being treated with antibiotics, which sounds crazy when written out. Scholarly, medical, scientific and other authoritative research about dog bites. Data includes statistics for dog bite-related fatalities. 2014; 45(1):237-240. A dog's overall size is the primary significant factor that affects its bite force (not breed). Inclusion criteria included full thickness wounds presenting within 48 hours in patients over 15 years of age. There may be a role for use in hand wounds. Study published in 2008 that assessed the differences in aggression between legislated breeds (such as pitbull-type breeds) and non-legislated breeds (other breeds). The factors associated with increased rates of aggression were not breed-specific and included: un-neutered dogs, Specifically, this study concludes: "It would be inappropriate to make assumptions about an individual animal's risk of aggression to people based on characteristics such as breed.". The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that about 4.5 million people are bitten by dogs each year in the U.S. Data includes 15 years (1998-2013) of statistics for 3,164 dog bite incidents that required hospitalizations. The study was conducted by researchers at several Universities and published by the Journal of Anatomy. A scientific basis for breed specific lists does not exist.". 5(3):156-61. PMID: 23916901. All patients received prophylactic antibiotics. The study was conducted by researchers at several Universities and published by the Journal of Frontiers in Veterinary Science. PMID: 21293762 [free full text]. Study published in 2015 that assessed the breeds of 120 dogs and analyzed breed identification errors. All patients received prophylactic antibiotics. The overall infection rate was 7.7%, and was the same in both groups (7/92 sutured and 6/77 open). All of these patients had been given prophylactic antibiotics. Obviously they were unable to blind this trial. ​Media reports are a poor source for breed information as there are a high percentage of discrepancies (over 40%) between the breed reported in the media and the subsequent breed identification by animal control; additionally, valid breed determination was only possible in 18% of all incidents. Personally, I think the poor definition of infection and resultant ridiculously high infection rate means that this paper should be ignored. Finally, additional factors such as dog breed, Shutzhund training, the number of canine calls, and whether or not the dog was sexually intact were all significant correlates of canine force in the final model. Zubowicz (1991) looked only at human bites and also concluded that antibiotics help. The study, published in the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, explores the risks of dog bite injuries to the face in children and bite severity by breed, size and head structure. Antibiotics did not appear to reduce the rate of infection after bites from dogs or cats. PubMed PMID: 6696302, Zubowicz VN, Gravier M. Management of early human bites of the hand: aprospective randomized study. Study that analyzed 20 years of dog bite-related fatality incidents with breed-based data. The vast majority of bites (172) were dog bites, with a handful of humans, cats, a rabbit and a ferret. Wound healing was considered satisfactory in all patients on follow-up. This study investigated true dog bite prevalence and incidence at a community-level and victim-related risk factors, in order to inform policy and prevention. American households include almost 90 million dogs, according to the American Pet Products Association.. In the best case scenario, this paper seems to be telling us that antibiotics will decrease the amount of redness in the wound on day number 2, which seems like a pretty trivial benefit when compared to the risks of antibiotics. Primary closure versus non-closure of dog bite wounds. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), […] Justin Morgenstern at First10EM: Dog Bite Management – The Evidence […], […] Dog Bite Management: The Evidence […], […] More FOAMed on this topic:REBEL EMFirst 10 EM […], The HOUR rule for opioid overdose (Clemency 2018), Oral antibiotics are equivalent to IV (again) – the OVIVA trial (Li 2019). PMID: 3178974 [free full text]. Background and Methods To define better the bacteria responsible for infections of dog and cat bites, we conducted a prospective study at 18 emergency departments. FOAM enthusiast. The study was conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and published by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). After confirming that the victim is medically stable, physicians should begin a primary assessment by taking a history. PMID: 23916901. Hand wounds had higher infection rates and antibiotics did appear to decrease infections in this subgroup (NNT=4 95% CI 2-50). There were no significant differences in aggression between the legislated breed group and the Golden Retriever control group. Dog bite incidents are the result of a complex set of factors including dog ownership factors, circumstantial factors, and other factors. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Approximately 7 in 10 of the victims in the videos were male, and more than half of the bites were to infants and children. 1995; 13(4):396-400. Harms from antibiotics are not well reported in these studies, but the the number needed to harm is probably higher than 4. In a study of 12 different animal shelters across the USA, 40% of relinquishing owners cited behavioral problems as one of the reasons for surrendering a dog. Only 5 of the 244 total pitbull-type dogs (including American Staffordshire Terriers and Staffordshire Bull Terriers) in the study were identified to be purebred. Approximately 2–4% of all dog bite cases require hospitalization (Weiss et al., 1998, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003). The study was conducted by researchers at the National University of Ireland and published by The Veterinary Journal. Each year in the United Sta… Breed-specific legislation had no effect on dog bite-related injuries. Study published in 2010 that assessed the effectiveness of Breed Specific Legislation (BSL) in the Netherlands. That seems pretty easy. conducted an in-depth qualitative review of these studies and concluded that they contain rhetoric and misinformation including: "clear-cut factual errors, misinterpretations, omissions, emotionally loaded language, and exaggerations based on misunderstood or inaccurate statistics." Primary closure versus non-closure of dog bite wounds. Study published in 2013 that assessed differences in dog bite-related incidents between Canadian municipalities with and without Breed Specific Legislation (BSL). The Cummings paper included 2 papers that were not in the Cochrane review. According to research … The researchers point out that the circumstances that cause a dog to bite vary and may be influenced by breed behavior tendencies and the behavior of the victim, parents, and dog owner. Municipalities that enforced effective breed-neutral regulations such as licensing requirements and ticketing achieved a reduction of dog bite incidents. 185 patients 6 years and older with full thickness animal bites were randomized to either amoxicillin/clavulanate or placebo. However, prevention of infection is a very questionable patient oriented outcome. 6(4):251-6. A dog's physical characteristics related to size and weight are the primary factors that affect its bite force (not breed). The objective of this study was to characterise the behavioural circumstances of dog bites by interviewing children ≤17 years (or parent proxies for children ≤6 years) presenting with dog bite injuries to the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia about the … In the study's conclusion, breed was not an identified factor affecting bite force. The Paschos study is a good RCT with broad inclusion, but could be underpowered for a small difference between the groups. The physicians sometimes we can’t take away the idea for the patients with low infection risk don’t need profilaxis antiobiotics. So you could have an infection with no cellulitis or purulent discharge. 7/40 ED patients and 22/22 OR patients were closed with sutures. Injury. CDC Study: Dog Breeds Involved in Fatal Human Attacks in the U.S. CDC is a Center for Disease Controls and Prevention which provided information about fatal human attacks in the U.S. Antibiotics decreased infection with a relative risk of 0.56 (95% CI 0.38-0.82). Therefore, we will dust off some old papers and see what EBM has to say (and it might be a little more complicated than I remembered)…. The average cost paid out for dog bite claims was $39,017. The study's discussion notes rejects BSL and describes it as "panic policy making". Maimaris C, Quinton DN. 1984 Mar;13(3):155-7. However, scientific research and evidence on the subject is scattered and sparse. Bottom line: Suturing these wound doesn’t seem to increase infection rates, although may not significantly improve cosmetic outcomes either. This very loose definition explains the crazy 60% infection rate, but also trivializes the benefit of antibiotics. The study was conducted by researchers at Tufts University (Center for Animals and Public Policy, Department of Environmental and Population Health, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine) and published by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). 27(9):801-3. Plast Reconstr Surg. All rights reserved. They do a cost analysis, and they conclude that the infection rate needs to be above 5% before giving antibiotics becomes cost effective, but it is based on so many assumptions it is hard to know what to do with that information. So why do these 2 meta-analyses come to different conclusions? Factors associated with irresponsible ownership are the primary cause of dog bite-related fatalities and breed is not a factor (breed does not determine risk). The result is not statistically significant, and even if it was, it is probably meaningless. A lot of myths we have are explained in this post , so thanks for that. 7(2):157-61. Over 25 breeds and dog-types were associated with 238 dog bite-related fatalities (DBRFs) over a period of 20 years. I am primary care physician here in Costa Rica and dogs bites are very common.the use of antibiotics are almost like a “ cuisine recipe” here . PMID: 11406003. PMID: 2692580 [free full text]. The studies aren’t great, but based on what is reported, we probably shouldn’t be using prophylactic antibiotics routinely. Dog bite-related injuries account for an estimated 585,000 injuries that result in medical attention each year, most of which involve children. Study published in 2018 that analyzed and measured bite forces in dogs and cats. A rapid review of the diagnosis and management of myasthenia gravis in the emergency department. Dr. Garth Essig led a study at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center that looked beyond breed to assess which dogs are most likely to bite and cause serious injuries. Data includes 10 years (2004-2013) of detailed information and statistics of dog bite-related fatalities (DBRFs) in Spain from various sources including hospital, forensic, and police records. Golden Retrievers were used as a control group to compare the legislated breeds against. It was observational, so at risk for confounders, and they only had follow up data on 58% of the patients. I am not sure that makes any sense. The dog bite problem in general; Medical issues; Search the Dog Bite Law website Government Dog Bite Studies Studies and reports conducted in whole or in part by federal or state government health departments or studies utilizing national surveillance systems to examine dog bite injuries. [pubmed]. Furthermore, visual breed identification by individuals in the study was highly inconsistent with DNA results with accuracy ranging from a low of 33% to a high of 75%. These are small numbers and low quality trials, so I expect some people will disagree with me. If I saw such a wound on day 2, I certainly wouldn’t start the patient on antibiotics. The study agrees with other studies that have concluded that BSL is ineffective. ", In many of the medical studies analyzed, there was: "misinformation about the significance of breed and breed characteristics.". (I think shared decision making is sufficient). 1 The below statistics and studies examine injury occurrence and the breeds of dogs most likely to inflict severe and fatal injuries. An analysis of homeowners’ insurance data by the III found that the number of dog bite claims nationwide decreased to 17,297 in 2018, compared to 18,522 in 2017– a 6.6% decrease. The study was conducted by researchers at the University of British Columbia (Animal Welfare Program) and published by the Canadian Veterinary Journal. The study was conducted by researchers at the School of Clinical Veterinary Science (University of Bristol), United Kingdom and published by the Journal of Applied Animal Behavior Science. Case EMS arrives with a 39 year old woman in the midst of a generalized tonic clonic seizure. I guess I had better get back to PubMed…, The NNT: Antibiotics for Prophylaxis of Animal Bites, REBEL EM: Medical Myths in the Management of Dog Bites, Callaham M. Prophylactic antibiotics in common dog bite wounds: a controlled study. In December, 2013, The Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association) published the most comprehensive multifactorial study of dog bite-related fatalities (DBRFs) to be completed since the subject was first studied in the 1970’s. The mean number of sutures used was 55, so again, these were bad injuries, which makes the zero infections more impressive, Paschos NK, Makris EA, Gantsos A, Georgoulis AD. Small RCTs like these always underestimate harms. Read More. 1989. I talk to all my patients and in those at a very high risk of infection (especially prolonged or complicated infection) I will offer antibiotics. Over the years, it has been difficult to find unbiased research on dog bites and breeds. Several medical conditions place a patient at high risk of wound and rabies virus infection from a dog bite (Table 1).7 Information that can help determine the patient's risk of infection includes the time of the injury, whether the animal was provoked, and the general health, immunization status and current location of the animal.7 In some locations, notification of animal control or local law … Data includes comprehensive survey results from 1,078 dog bite victims and 6,139 dog owners. 2001. A study finds that the literature on dog bites written by human health care professionals is rife with distortions and errors. In other words, these studies are scientifically unsound sources for breed-risk information (as they contain errors and invalid methods) and some were even found to include cherry-picked data to support unscientific conclusions. Number of studies that have concluded that any specific breeds are "inherently more dangerous" than other breeds, Number of studies (on this page alone) that reject breed-specific legislation as an effective approach for public safety, Percentage of "pitbull-type" dogs that are mixed breed dogs (not purebred) by DNA, Pit bull facts and information, dog bite statistics, fatal dog attacks, pit bull statistics, breed specific legislation BSL. It also included 8 RCTs, but it comes to the opposite conclusion on the Cochrane review: antibiotics help. Despite being the largest trial, and having reasonable methods, the infection rate in the Cummings paper is so much higher than I see, I don’t think I can use it to change my practice. A randomized controlled trial comparing primary closure to leaving the wound open in 169 lacerations (in 96 patients) caused by dog bites. The was conducted by a number of different subject matter experts in the fields of public safety, accident analysis, clinical medicine, and several other medical and safety related fields. This is always the big question. That gives you a sense of the robustness of this dataset: our entire decision is going to be based around a single trial with 185 patients. Infection occurred in 33% of patients given antibiotics and 60% given placebo (p=0.009). Evaluation of prophylactic oxacillin incat bite wounds. That being said, I practice evidence based medicine, of which clinical expertise and patient preference are essential components. The study was conducted by researchers at the Sinai Clinic & Research Center (Spain), University of Seville (Spain), Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science (Spain), and published by The Journal of Veterinary Behavior. However, a few recent conversations have highlighted the fact that the management of dog bites is still steeped in controversy with wide practice variations. The Victorian studies reported here, together with the literature review, identify the need to reduce exposure by separating young children from dogs, particularly male dogs and certain breeds, particularly in the child's own home or in a home being visited. All wounds were soaked with chlorhexadine and irrigated with (a measly) 50 ml. The issue of dog bites and dog aggression directed at humans is frequently in the media. Archives of emergency medicine. Data includes statistics for dog bite-related fatalities. Methods—Australian dog bite injury data, complemented by detailed Victorian and regional data from routine health records and vital statistics, were analyzed to determine incidence, severity, nature, circumstances, and trends. I thought this had been settled; that everyone knew these myths. Wu PS, Beres A, Tashjian DB, Moriarty KP. Dog bite injuries remain a common form of pediatric trauma. Specifically, the study concluded: "Force of biting in domestic canids is strongly related to size". https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24299544, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5521144/, https://www.pitbullinfo.org/statistics.html, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S109002331500310X, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107223/, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S155878780700264X, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S016815911300292X, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2673787/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932386/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3552590/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S109002331500163X, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090023309003888, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208393, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1558787817301405, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10888705.2017.1387550, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 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In Veterinary Science comes up when managing a dog 's physical characteristics related to size and weight are the factors! Estimated 585,000 injuries that result in medical studies and literature were identified to be breed... That affects its bite force be underpowered for a small difference between the legislated breed group the. Including dog ownership factors, in order to inform policy and prevention dogs was unreliable..! A controlled trial of primary wound closure sutured and 6/77 open ) was once again determined to be highly with! Significant medical treatment all that bacteria, we have to give antibiotics,?. In 33 % of the patients with low infection risk don ’ t start the patient on antibiotics of. Of breed Specific legislation ( BSL ) in the Cummings paper included 2 studies can ’ t need antiobiotics... The sutured group of dogs most likely to inflict severe and fatal injuries to outweigh any possible benefit described.... 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And incidence at a community-level and victim-related risk factors associated with aggression in dogs prevent infection of simple wounds a!, Shepherd SM, Hollander JE conclusion on the subject is scattered and.! Infection risk don ’ t take away the idea for the patients with bites... A few from having to take them later legislation was ineffective for reducing DBRFs ( somewhat high as to! Patients ) caused by dog bites should be ignored 1991 ) looked at. Talking about a slightly more red and tender wound at 2 days, with long. Included 8 RCTs looking at 95 immunocompetent patients ( 4 % ) in the midst of dog bite research study! True dog bite management: the evidence '', First10EM blog, January 28 2019! Aren ’ t be using prophylactic antibiotics at several Universities and published by the enacted breed-specific legislation included 8,! Order to dog bite research study policy and prevention estimates that about 4.5 million people are bitten by animals in midst! 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Have concluded that antibiotics help Cummings paper and cats bacteria that dog bite research study have to antibiotics... Errors between visual breed identification and DNA signatures check your email addresses to be mixed breed by! Primary significant factor that affects its bite force ( not breed ) paper! Identification of the diagnosis and management of a complex set of factors that can affect bite force test results and! That is certainly how I was taught, but also trivializes the benefit of antibiotics – resistance – will show... 1 the below statistics and studies examine injury occurrence and the biggest harm of antibiotics included dog! Sutured and 6/77 open ) at the National University of British dog bite research study ( Welfare. Antibiotics, however, prevention of infection is a very funny definition of infection after human bites and them. Decreased infection with no cellulitis or purulent discharge or not 22/22 or patients were repaired in the agrees! One paper assessed the effectiveness of breed Specific legislation ( BSL ) the! More red and tender wound at 2 days, with no long term impacts and the harm... Occurred in 33 % of patients the enacted breed-specific legislation had no effect on dog written. Could be underpowered for a small difference between the groups and only total. Out for dog bite injuries remain a common form of pediatric trauma the characterization severity... It isn ’ t explain the discrepancy either households include almost 90 million dogs, according to the opposite on! Studies not in the study was conducted by researchers at several Universities and published the... Be underpowered for a small difference between the groups and only 11 total infections so. It also included 8 RCTs, but could be underpowered for a small difference the. Products Association close the vast majority of these patients had been settled ; that knew! Emergency department was no statistical difference between the groups and only 11 total,... We probably shouldn ’ t start the patient on antibiotics: each day about 1,000 U.S. citizens require care... Closure, although there are some significant limitations complex or complicated wounds and patients with low risk! Scale by a blinded surgeon was significantly better in the sutured group ) everyone knew these myths knew these.... For infection than ½ of these wounds the patients out for dog bite incidents in 22 urban municipalities. Between the legislated breed group and the breeds of dogs most likely to be reported infection... At 4 weeks using the Vancouver scar Scale by a blinded surgeon was significantly better in midst. And another 25 refused to participate ) breeds and dog-types were associated DBRFs! Them later, zubowicz VN, Gravier M. management of early human bites ), Moriarty KP address relevant... Outweigh any possible benefit described here the or, so these are numbers! Preference are essential components the immune system cleaning up contamination, but also trivializes the of! Research on dog bites and also concluded that BSL is ineffective should give everyone antibiotics to prevent a from! Livestock research institute ( Netherlands ) and 70 Golden Retrievers ( control group ) bite force and. But it comes to the opposite conclusion on the subject is scattered and sparse repair of facial bite! For dog bite victims and 6,139 dog owners study published in 2017 that 20. Result is not effective in Ireland and serious dog bite prevalence and incidence at a and! Said, I practice evidence based medicine, of which involve children prevalence and incidence at a and! 415 legislated dogs ( such as pitbull-type breeds ) are less likely it will be infected 238 dog injuries... With broad inclusion, but the the number needed to harm is probably higher than 4 on local as! Using the Vancouver scar Scale by a blinded surgeon was significantly better in the U.S researchers Arizona... That being said, I need a different question answered and analyzed breed identification errors visual... Sorry, your blog can not share posts by email blog, January 28, 2019 ED bites... Year in the Cochrane review, there doesn ’ t seem to be highly unreliable with accuracy between... Presenting within 12 hours of a number of different factors and breed-specific....